Glossary of terms

A

  • Amazon Web Services (AWS): Infrastructure web services platform in the cloud owned by Amazon. Xapix cloud version is hosted on AWS.

  • Application Programming Interface (API): Essentially a contract between two independent systems that allow them to communicate with each other. HTTP requests are used to access information and can be either SOAP or REST.

  • API Methods: See HTTP Methods.

  • Arity: Number of arguments a function can take. For example, unary (one argument), binary (two arguments), ternary (three arguments), etc .

  • Azure: Cloud services having some similarities to AWS and owned by Microsoft.

B

  • Backend-as-a-Service (BaaS): Cloud service model where developers use backend-related services such as database management, cloud storage, authentication for front-end tasks ( accessing data sources and authentication).

  • Boot servers: Otherwise know as the bootstrap server, it is a comma-separated list of host/port pairs. These pairs are the addresses of the Kafka brokers. A Kafka client connects to a boot server to bootstrap itself.

  • Business Processing Modelling (BPM) and Notation (BPMN): Modelling of the steps of a business process from end to end using a graphical representation of a workflow.

C

  • Command Line Interface (CLI): Typically a terminal program used to run commands, including cURL or Powershell commands.

  • Cloud: Refers to a global network represented by the Internet, as opposed to a network of local machines, or single machines.

  • Create, Read, Update, Delete (CRUD): The four basic storage functions, which when applied to RESTful APIs are PUT/POST (Create), GET (Read or retrieve), PUT/POST/PATCH (Update or modify) and DELETE (delete or destroy).

  • Consumer group: A label given to a Consumer instance which receives records of specific topics sent from an Event Consumer.

  • Comma Separated Values (CSV): Allows data to be saved in a tabular format that is used for exchanging data.

  • Correlation ID: A unique ID transmitted over HTTP headers (and attached to requests and messages) that correlates requests over multiple systems and responses.

D

  • Data source: Location or source of the data that is retrieved by an application.

  • Data stream: A series of data points created by a system that is continuously creating data.

  • Data warehouse (DWH): Central data repository optimized for analysis. See ETL.

  • Datum: Single item of data.

  • DELETE: HTTP method to delete a resource. If successful, HTTP Response codes of either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) are returned. If unsuccessful, HTTP response codes of either 404 (Not Found) or 405 (Method Not Allowed) are returned. Corresponds to DELETE in CRUD.

E

  • Endpoint: One end of a communication channel. It is the location at which an API accesses resources on a server or service. Requests and responses are made at endpoints.

  • Enterprise Service Bus (ESB): As a software architecture for distributed computing, an ESB allows for orchestration and integration of a variety of interfaces.

  • Event: A data point in an event stream. A connector that reads Kafka topics (data) based on a defined record structure.

  • Event consumer: Consumes streams of messages (records) from topics. A Consumer often runs continuously until aborted, meaning it can be considered "always on". A Consumer can subscriber to one or more topics. Each Consumer is part of a Consumer Group.

  • Event producer: Publishes streams of messages (records) to Kafka topics. A producer selects records to be written to specific topics within a Consumer Group.

  • Event stream: Stream of emitted data.

  • Event Stream Processing (ESP): Analyzing and processing a continuous stream of data points from a system that continuously creating data.

  • ETL (Extract, Transform, Load): Big data functions combined into a single tool that reads out data from one or more databases, which is converted or transformed into a format suitable for analysis and then loaded or published into a target database.

F

  • Falsy: Values that evaluate to False are considered Falsy.

G

  • GET: HTTP method which retrieves a representation of a resource in the response body. It reads (or retrieves) a representation of a resource identified by a Request URI (the address). The returned resource can be either JSON or XML. If successful, an HTTP response code of 200 (OK) is returned. If unsuccessful, the response code can be either 404 (NOT FOUND) or 400 (BAD REQUEST). Corresponds to Read in CRUD.

H

  • HTTP Request Methods: For RESTful APIs, methods include GET, POST, PUT, DELETE, PATCH.

  • HTTP Requests: Messages sent from a client to a server. These messages are actions to be performed on a resource. Requests consist of a URL and a method.

  • HTTP Gateway Timeout: On a Xapix cloud instance, timeout is 1 minute for entire pipeline, including all data sources. Error is returned and pipeline aborted after timeout.

I

  • Initial position: In an event stream, an offset used to read or process the data. Latest starts reading the stream from the end of the topic. Earliest starts reading from the beginning of a topic. Earliest is the default behavior.

  • IoT (Internet of Things): Network of interconnected devices communicating across internal (WiFi or Ethernet) or external (mobile) networks to the Internet.

J

  • JWT (JSON Web Token): Access token used in stateless authentication.

  • JSON (JavaScript Object Notation): Human-readable data exchange format consisting of attribute-value pairs and array data types. OpenAPI 2.0 Swagger files can be represented in JSON format.

K

  • Kafka server: Otherwise known as a Kafka broker, it hosts Topics.

L

  • LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol): Can be used to store usernames and passwords for authentication purposes.

M

  • MQTT (Message Queuing Telemetry Transport): A machine-to-machine (M2M)/IoT connectivity protocol. It is a lightweight publish/subscribe messaging protocol to transport messages between devices normally running over TCP/IP.

N

  • NoSQL (Not only SQL): A non-relational database such as MongoDB.

O

  • On-premises: Software installed and run on a local server from within an organization rather than remotely from an external cloud service such as AWS.

P

  • PATCH: HTTP method to partially modify a resource. The body of the request contains a set of instructions how to make the changes. If successful, the HTTP Response codes of either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) are returned. If unsuccessful, then HTTP response codes of either 404 (Not Found) or 405 (Method Not Allowed) are returned.

  • POST: HTTP method to create a subordinate resource (that is, a child resource of a parent resource) at the Request URI (the address). An HTTP response code of 201 is returned upon a successful creation of the resource and includes a status of the request and a Location header. If unsuccessful, HTTP response codes of either 404 (Not found) or 409 (Conflict), which indicates resource already exists, are returned. Corresponds to Create in CRUD.

  • PUT: HTTP method to update a known resource provided by a Request URI (the address) with information contained in the request body. This information is used to modify an existing resource. If successful, that is, the existing resource is modified, then an HTTP response code of either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is returned. If unsuccessful, an HTTP response code of 501 (Not Implemented) is returned. The PUT method is used less often to create a resource. POST is usually the better option. The Corresponds to Update in CRUD.

Q

R

  • RAML (RESTful API Modelling Language): YAML-based language for defining HTTP-based APIs that are "practically-RESTful APIs".

  • RDB, RDBMS: Relational database.

  • Records: Key/value pairs plus timestamps.

  • regex: A regular expression describing a search pattern that uses a wildcard.

  • Request/Response: When an API requests information from application or server accessible using the URL endpoint, it receives a response.

  • REST (Representational State Transfer): A architectural style not a format whose key abstraction is a resource, which can be any information such as a document or image. Another key abstraction is resource methods. A RESTful API conforms to these abstractions.

  • Resource: Mapping to an entity or set of entities.

S

  • Server name - Name of Kafka server. Default is kafkaServer.

  • Service Oriented Architecture (SOA): Software architectural style that uses repeatable (or reusable) services with a specific outcome.

  • SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm): Used for cryptography to encrypt strings or keys. Xapix provides SHA1, SHA256, SHA384 methods.

  • Sink - A connector that streams topics (data) to targeted systems.

  • Slugs in Xapix - Used to identify the organization or project in a URL.

  • SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol): Lightweight XML-based messaging protocol that is independent of any language, platform and transport method, although HTTP is widely used. It is used to exchange data between applications.

  • Streaming data: See Data streams.

  • SQL (Structured Query Language): Type of relational database.

T

  • Topics: Category or name of a feed to which a stream of records are published. Sometimes called a partition. Each topic can have zero, one or many Consumers subscribed to it.

  • Truthy: Values that evaluate to true are considered truthy.

  • Tuple: Finite ordered list (sequence) of elements.

U

  • UTC (Coordinated Universal Time): Primary time standard used to regulate time world-wide.

V

W

  • WADL (Web Application Description Language): A machine-readable XML document describing accessible resources.

  • WSDL (Web Services Description Language): XML-based definition language used by SOAP based web services. As an API description format, a WSDL file can be considered a contract between the provider and consumer of a service.

X

  • XML (Extensible Markup Language): A both human-readable and machine-readable format for documents used to describe data. It is used as an API data format.

  • XSD (XML Schema Definition): Describes the elements in an XML document and is used as an API data schema.

Y

  • YAML (YAML Ain't Markup Language): A human readable data serialization format. OpenAPI 2.0 Swagger files can be written in YAML version 1.2.

Z

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